Cremation: why and why not

Three things got me thinking about cremation.

One was a phone call from someone asking me if I would like an information package about funerals. This was tacky – a telephone solicitation from a funeral parlor? – but I was so surprised, I found myself saying yes. A week later the package arrived and I discovered that in comparison to how expensive funerals were, cremations could be substantially less so.

The second incident was an email, with a story about a woman who organized her own funeral and asked to be buried with a fork in her right hand. Why a fork? Well, when people saw it she knew they would ask the pastor about it, and that would give him the opportunity to tell them a little story from the woman’s youth. When she was a little child she loved to attend church suppers, and she especially loved it near the end, because just as people were clearing away the dishes, one of the older ladies would always lean over and tell her, “Save your fork!” That would get her really excited because she knew something better was coming – whether it was apple cobbler, or delicious blueberry pie, or perhaps some rich chocolate cake. Whatever it was, she knew it was going to be good. So to her the fork was always a reminder that something better was coming. “When I die,” she told the pastor, “and people ask about the fork, I want you to tell them my story and then tell them the good news – that when you belong to Jesus Christ, you too can be assured that something better is coming.”

I don’t know if this story is true but it got me thinking about how many non-Christians might attend my own funeral. Funerals force people to consider their own mortality, and Christian funerals naturally bring up the idea of immortality so this sort of event can’t help but be evangelistic. The woman in this story took things a step further as she tried to really drive home the gospel message. Her approach was a little strange, but the evangelistic tone of her funeral was intriguing.

The third event was a visit to Arlington National Cemetery. This is the United States’ most famous cemetery, a shrine of remembrance to the country’s honored dead. But for every remembered president buried there, like John F. Kennedy, there are dozens of forgotten generals and thousands of anonymous privates. A row of large statues had me thinking of the Preacher’s cry: “Vanities of vanities” (Eccl 1). These grave markers were huge, but the men underneath weren’t special enough to be mentioned in my guidebook. The whole thing reminded me of the people today who seek after fame hoping that when they die members of the media will celebrate their life and say things like, “He’ll live on forever in our hearts” and “As long as we remember him, he’s not really dead.” Then, like the pharaohs of old, a giant grave marker will be erected over top of their bodies and their name will be engraved in stone in the hopes that this will ensure their remembrance.

I left Arlington Cemetery depressed. So many people in the world seek after immortality but trade the real thing for a sham.

Immortal for a different reason

These three events left me leaning towards cremation. So far I had three reasons.

First, it would save money.

Second, getting cremated was a stark contrast to the huge grave markers that I had seen in Arlington National Cemetery. I liked that contrast.

Third, cremation would be very much like getting buried with a fork – people would want to know why I did it. And when they asked, the minister could tell them a little story: “At a funeral you will sometimes hear it said that the departed has not really died because ‘he lives on in our memories.’ But if he lives on only in our memories what happens when all the people who remember him die? He’s been cremated and his ashes scattered to the wind so there isn’t even a gravestone to mark his time here on earth. In a short thirty or forty years there will be no memory of him at all, so if his immortality depends on people remembering him, what happens to him then? Well, the Bible tells us that he will still live on, not because people remember him, but rather because Jesus Christ remembers him, and has died for him. Through Jesus’ death on the cross our friend lives, now and forever. This is the real deal, the only type of immortality that endures.”

The case against cremation 

After bouncing this idea off a few friends and theological types I soon found out that some Christians are strongly opposed to cremation. It’s true there is no explicit command against cremation in the Bible, but there are still some texts that may apply in a less direct way.

  • A brief look through Scripture will show that, at the very least, burial was the normal thing to do among God’s people. For example, the Bible specifically mentions that Abraham, Isaac, Samuel and David were buried (Gen. 24:9, 35:29, 1 Samuel 25:1, & 1 Kings 2:10 respectively). Additionally, when Moses died God selected a burial spot for him (Deut. 34:6).
  • Also, when the Bible talks about fire, and specifically fire burning bodies, it is almost always portrayed in a bad light. In Gen. 38:24 Judah threatens to burn his daughter-in-law to death as a punishment for adultery. This same punishment is prescribed in Leviticus 20:14 for any man who marries a woman, and her mother. In Numbers 16 fire from God consumes 250 rebellious Israelites. The Lord curses Moab in Amos 2:1 “because he burned, as if to lime, the bones of Edom’s king.” The New Testament also links fire with punishment. In Revelations 20:15, for example, those whose names were not written in the Book of Life were thrown into a lake of fire.
  • Jesus was buried. Combine this with God’s treatment of Moses and we have God burying someone, and God being buried.
  • There is a lot of symbolism associated with burial that finds its origins in the Bible. For example Col 2:12 talks about how we have been buried with Christ through baptism. There are no similar passages for cremation.

The case in favor

While these texts do at first seem to make a compelling case for burial, there is more still that can be said.

  • Burial may have been the custom throughout Israel, but there are many Israelite customs we do not follow. We do not, for example, wash our feet after entering someone’s house. Just because something is done a certain way in the Bible, does not mean that God commands us to do it that way today.
  • While the Bible does talk about burning as punishment, it often refers to it as a way of killing the guilty, rather than as a means of disposing of their bodies. So this really isn’t cremation. If you do want to make the link then it is worth taking a second look at Numbers 16. It is here that the earth swallows up Korah and his household, and all his men. “They went down alive into the grave” (vs. 33). So just as “cremation” can be a punishment, so too can “burial.”
  • 1 Sam. 31:12 recounts one of the very few examples in which cremation is specifically brought up in the Bible, and it is portrayed in a neutral, if not positive light. Saul’s body is retrieved from the Philistines and burned by the “valiant men” of Jabesh Gilead. (But, as has been pointed out since this article was first published, the next verse, 1 Sam 31:13, then recounts how their bones were buried).
  • While fire is often spoken of as a means of punishment, John the Baptist promised that Jesus would baptize people with, “the Holy Spirit and fire” (Luke 3:16). Fire is also mentioned positively as a means of refinement (Rev. 3:18). So it seems clear then, that this is symbolic language, and that fire is not, in itself, bad.

Christian stewardship can also be a consideration here since cremation usually costs substantially less than burial– the main saving is in the cheaper casket and the fact there is no plot to buy.

Cost is not the most compelling reason, of course. The best case for cremation is really the case for Christian liberty: if there is no scriptural directive on this issue, then each Christian is free to follow the dictates of his, or her own conscience.


Cremation seems to be a rarity in our churches so this may not be much of an issue for us today, but when you consider that cremation has gone from 4 per cent of Canadian funerals in 1961 to 46 per cent in 2001, it’s clear we will have to think about it soon. It’s best then to discuss this issue now, rather than when it is forced on us. If you have any thoughts on cremation, or have any points or arguments you would like to contribute, please comment below.

For further study, Reformed resources on, and primarily against, cremation

  • Dr. Nelson D. Kloosterman argues against cremation here.
  • Rev. Steve Schlissel takes a strong stand against cremation in this article.

This article first appeared in the June, 2003 issue. It has been corrected, with a reference to 1 Sam. 31:13 now pointing to the previous verse, 1 Sam. 31:12.

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  1. R V

    August 10, 2019 at 12:32 pm

    Adam started out from dust, im sure hus body is back there again. Buried bodies soon look like burned ones. Ashes to ashes, dust to dust.

  2. Carina

    August 10, 2019 at 6:23 pm

    We believe that Christ will resurrect our bodies at His second coming…I’m not sure that cremation is evidence of that belief. Not to say that God can’t find all the ashes of a person( if they are scattered) and resurrect the body in that way. It just seems odd.

    • Carlos

      August 14, 2019 at 7:47 am

      Carina, do you believe that those who died as followers of the LORD thousands of years ago still have bodies? Their bones may still be intact but that’s about it. I agree with the author about Christian liberty. There is no command one way or the other. We are free to choose in this instance.

  3. Osborn4

    August 14, 2019 at 5:08 am

    1 Samuel 13:31 says buried in all the versions I checked, but burned, as the author claims.

    • Reformed Perspective

      August 14, 2019 at 8:42 am

      Thanks for the correction. The verse I intended to point to was the one previous to it, 1 Sam 31:12 (which I’ve now corrected in the article).

  4. Mary Beth

    August 14, 2019 at 5:45 am

    In response to Carina, I think that cremation could potentially bring greater glory to God as He supernaturally pieces back together all of the ashes of a person’s body to create a glorified, eternal person. Interesting article and much to ponder on this topic. I like the idea of lower cost too so a greater amount of money can go to charitable giving from an estate.

  5. Paul

    August 14, 2019 at 11:42 am

    I wouldn’t say I’m strongly opposed to cremation but I am concerned with what the embrace of cremation means for Christianity. The issue isn’t what the Bible doesn’t say about cremation but what it does say about the importance and nature of the body. Our view of the body and how we treat the body even at death was once a distinguishing mark of Christianity. Not so much now. But it can be again, especially as burial becomes more and more rare (even frowned upon) and if the church renews its role in death, dying and burial. There are ways to save on costs of burial, prepare for costs, and infuse burial with robust meaning. Here, as much as anywhere, we distinguish between a secular or pagan anthropology and a Christian one. The links between abortion, the sexual revolution, physician assisted suicide, and the rise of cremation are not arbitrary.

  6. Jobby

    August 14, 2019 at 7:17 pm

    I would not use Luke 3:16 as a point in favor. Luke 3:17 seems to indicate that there are two sides and fire is for burning the chaff vs the wheat being gathered. Since the “you” is plural, it would seem appropriate that 3:16 is also referring to separate sides. I still like the idea of fire being used for refinement as a good thing as an argument (maybe include 1 Peter 1:7 with the Revelation text). Some might argue that the fire is again used to destroy but I like the concept (destroying the bad is a good thing). Just as long as people don’t see our bodies as being refined in a dualistic sense.

    In favor of burial, I have heard the argument not only that Christ was buried but that he was resurrected in that same body and so burial is looking forward to a resurrection of our body in the same way. I would argue that the body will decay and become dust eventually but still want to present this side accurately.

    I agree though that it is not sin to go either route and we have freedom here, though burial seems preferable from a biblical norm sense.

  7. Belinda

    August 18, 2019 at 4:51 am

    Cremate why not? There is no issue if a believer wants to cremate his/her body it is a decision of every individual. If we read the text that was given those people that were punished were not dead, they were burnt alive. We are talking dead bodies being cremated. That is not the same thing.

  8. Jonel

    August 19, 2019 at 12:28 am

    My opinion is in favor of burial not cremation. The biblical analogy of death as people being “asleep” for a period of time connotes the idea of waiting and rising on the same body. Christians who believe in the second coming of Christ and the accompanied promise of ressurection shall be the inspiration to let the body wait with more dignity. Jesus will raise all the dead from the grave believers as well as the unbelievers and will be given a kind of body from the old physical framework that is suitable to his eternal destiny, heaven or hell. So to me, the issue is not the ability of God to raise the dead because no doubt he is able to collect all the ashes of one’s body even if they were spread on waters but on the part of the believing people. The greatest expression of faith in Christ’s promise of ressurection is to let the body decay, while the bones which are the symbol of our physical identity remain waiting for new and glorified body. Even in death, we can express our faith in God in a more decent way.

    • Albert

      August 21, 2019 at 5:44 am

      Additionally cremation can be seen as (and likely a substantial reason for it being so popular these days) a way for unbelievers to become untouchable and as such not needing to fear accountability. The thinking goes that when the ash is spread out over the water (or in rare cases even into space!) then I am completely gone.
      Christians should understand that this isn’t true at all and that God created everything, even the rules of physics. Yet, I would be concerned with the message Christians would give to the world by choosing (when it still is a free choice, unlike martyrs at the stake, or when laws demand cremation) for cremation.

  9. Ed

    August 30, 2019 at 7:48 am

    Does a body have value after death? I don’t seem to see this question addressed much in this discussion. If we are body AND spirit, then even though our spirit has left, there is a very real sense in which our body is still “us.” This is why it, in particular, will be resurrected. It is for this very same reason that in Scripture dead bodies are treated with respect.

    So Jesus was actually honored by the women who brought spices and Jesus was actually honored when carefully wrapped and put in a tomb. The one who had no place to lay his head was given a place to rest. The men who rescued Saul’s bones were honoring Saul and were honored for doing so.

    So when there is a funeral, we don’t say it is just “some body” in the casket. It is the actual person. So the question is; Are we honoring an individual by destroying their body or by seeking to preserve it until Christ comes again?

  10. Susan Wallcraft

    September 3, 2019 at 5:41 pm

    Thank you, Jon. I had never thought of the Christian Liberty perspective and have struggled with this quite a bit, as has my elderly Mother. Personally, given a choice, I would rather be burned than have worms eat me. And Carlos, above, made an excellent point about bones…. I’ve read newspaper articles about Civil War soldiers having their graves exhumed and there was nothing left but a tooth and a button from their uniform, not even the bones.

  11. Ray Bobo

    September 4, 2019 at 5:15 am

    While it is true that Scripture does not command burial rather than cremation, the Westminster Confession of Faith (the Standard of my denomination) states, “The whole counsel of God concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man’s salvation, faith and life, is either expressly set down in Scripture [commands], or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture . . . .” It appears that the means of final disposition of the body is one of those areas that we must “deduce from Scripture”. In addition to the resources you site, I recommend comments by Loraine Boettner in IMMORTALITY, pages 50-55.


    September 4, 2019 at 1:29 pm

    We just attended our daughter-in-law’s memorial service. She died from metastatic breast cancer just a week short of her 41st birthday. Cremation was her choice because the ashes could be distributed to three of her favorite places: her present home, her family graveyard and a place in Montana where she and her husband (my son) had travelled. I was not at all offended by her choice. She was an amazing gospel witness to all her peers.
    Then I thought about John Huss, John Wycliffe, William Tyndale, Archbishop Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley, and the many believers who died in the twin towers on 9/11. While I am not distinguishing between cremation and a horrible form of capital punishment, the end result is still the same. God is able to give us all new bodies and reunite us with our Savior and loved ones.

  13. Sue M.

    September 5, 2019 at 10:31 pm

    What about being cremated, the ashes placed in a tasteful urn, and the urn buried (or placed in a mausoleum) after the funeral? There will always be a final resting place for family and friends to visit. My late mother wanted a traditional burial and my late father wanted to be cremated. Today, her casket and his urn are buried side-by-side in a funeral plot and the headstone has both their names and birth nd death dates on it.

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